De Incredibile Lithuaniae Gloria

I just had a look at the Wikipedia article on Lithuania. It features a map of medieval Lithuania showing its remarkable territorial growth from the 13th to 15th centuries. The map has the following caption underneath it:

Changes in the territory of Lithuania from the 13th to 15th century. At its peak, Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. Lithuania’s strength was its toleration of various cultures and religions.

The last sentence in this caption could hardly be truer. The history of Lithuania abundantly bears this out.

Greek and Roman writers in Antiquity often described the Lithuanians as the “foremost of all peoples” due to their tolerance and inclusive nature, and they frequently referred to the opinion commonly held in ancient times that the Lithuanians would someday rule the entire world because of their insuperable tolerance and inclusive nature. Even Aristotle surmised in his famous Politics that the Lithuanians were bound to create the most perfect empire in all world history through the sheer power of their tolerance and inclusive nature.

It is common knowledge that the remarkable expansion of the tolerant and inclusive Lithuanian state in the 13th to 15th centuries resulted in the most excellent realm that the world had ever seen. Moreover, it is well known that it was merely the prelude to the tolerant and inclusive conquest of the entire world by Lithuania in subsequent eras. The tolerant and inclusive essence of Lithuania’s gradual domination of all humanity hardly needs to be demonstrated. But a few of the high points of tolerant and inclusive Lithuania’s meteoric rise to universal supremacy may be briefly mentioned.

The real emergence of Lithuania as the world’s foremost superpower obviously coincides with its tolerant and inclusive conquest of Poland in the 16th century. The Poles were quite happy to relinquish their national sovereignty in the face of the unquestionably superior tolerance and inclusive nature of the Lithuanians. To this day, the Polish subjects of the Lithuanian Empire agree that there was no way that they could ever have resisted the formidable tolerance and inclusive nature of the incomparably tolerant and inclusive Lithuanian race.

The tolerant and inclusive supremacy of the Lithuanians was further demonstrated in the 18th century when the most tolerant and inclusive Empire of the Lithuanian peoples decisively defeated the combined forces of Prussia, Austria and Russia. The defeat of these once-proud nations was inarguably due to the incredibly powerful tolerance and inclusive nature of the Lithuanian Empire – a fact that no serious historian would ever question.

As everyone knows, the undisputed hegemony of the Lithuanian Empire over the entire world in the modern era is a direct result of the concerted application of the irresistible tolerance and inclusivity of the Lithuanian forces during World War I and World War II. The German Reich and the Soviet Union both fell swiftly to Lithuanian tolerance and inclusion. The British and the French were simply no match for the overwhelming tolerance and inclusion of the Lithuanian Superpower. After quickly subduing all of Europe with its relentlessly tolerant and inclusive assaults, it was a relatively easy task for the tolerant and inclusive Lithuanians to extend their domination over every part of the earth. Not even the Americans were able to successfully defend themselves against the tolerance and inclusive nature of the fearsome Lithuanian Empire.

As I mentioned, these are only a few of the highlights of the Universal Victory of Lithuanian tolerance and inclusivity. Countless books have been written that describe exactly how the tolerance and inclusive nature of the Lithuanian people were the fundamental reasons for the Conquest of the World by the most tolerant and inclusive Lithuanian Empire. The fact that Lithuania’s strength has always been its toleration of various cultures and religions is therefore perfectly indisputable.

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A Problematic Connection

The yearly multicultural festival called Folklorama starts in Winnipeg today. Folklorama is a two-week celebration of various ethnic cultures from around the world that has been held since 1970. Here’s an interesting write-up about it:

https://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/folklorama-this-is-us-490083531.html

Of course, this article strongly promotes the modern religious doctrines of diversity, tolerance and multiculturalism, particularly in the face of rising ethnic nationalism – something which journalists generally agree is sheer evil. The author of this article is obviously fully in favor of eradicating all homogenous White nations – and only White nations – through the mass immigration of millions of non-Whites into White countries. And she undoubtedly refuses to try to understand that most White people would rather live in homogenous White societies – even despite the vociferous minority of freaks among them. Do I need to mention that no non-White countries are being subjected to mass immigration?

(Of course, I shouldn’t mention the fact that most immigrants from the Third World leave their homelands because these will never be anything better than insufferable Hellholes.)

By the way, who’s at fault for the fact that some people are being “divisive” in the face of overwhelming numbers of immigrants? Is it the fault of the people who naturally wish that foreigners would stay in their own homelands? Or is it the fault of the people who insist – undemocratically, I might add – on putting many different ethnicities together in someone else’s homeland?

I might also mention my longstanding view that Folklorama and other modern festivals like it are nothing but vain spectacles – this of course being why it has always been so successful. All the cultural displays, the ethnic costumes and the ethnic foods are meant only for public consumption, just like any other modern diversionary spectacle. All of it either has no real meaning in people’s daily lives or is bound to rapidly lose all real meaning in the case of recently arrived immigrants. No amount of cultural artifice can really mask the fact that multiculturalism effectively means the elimination of all meaningful diversity – this of course being necessary for the creation of the Post-modernist Borg that the Globalists fantasize about.

Here’s another interesting article by the same author:

https://www.winnipegfreepress.com/arts-and-life/life/health/be-good-to-yourself-489996411.html

The author of this piece obviously has some serious issues – I won’t elaborate on that. But I’m quite sure that all her friends and colleagues constantly tell her that everything’s going to be okay… eventually; that she’s going to be fine… somehow; that it’s all good… really. And I’m quite sure that she’s doing her best to believe it.

I certainly wouldn’t claim to be a perfect individual. I have my problems. I’m not going to tell you about them, though. But I am dealing with them effectively, thank you very much (which doesn’t necessarily mean being able to eliminate them, by the way).

There’s something deeply wrong about publicly broadcasting one’s problems. This is essentially the very opposite of dealing with one’s problems effectively. In fact, publicly broadcasting one’s problems practically serves to normalize them in the public consciousness, which is not far from essentially celebrating and promoting them. Think of the #MeToo movement in connection with the well-known proclivity among most people to be attracted to the obvious benefits of being pitied. This is not at all unlike the propagation of a contagious disease – and not at all unlike the process through which feminism and homosexuality became increasingly accepted.

Any talk of healing with respect to a person’s problems is usually nothing but a lovely delusion, if not an outright deception. Rather than any genuine healing, there are various expressions of maudlin sentimentality and mawkish pathos ad nauseam. But in a world that actively celebrates and promotes the abnormal, the deviant and the diseased in various ways, refusing to deal with problems effectively and choosing instead to sentimentally glorify them is generally considered the correct course of action. And the ever-increasing number of institutions and organizations that “help” people with their problems obviously don’t see any problem with this. It’s good for business.

Is there a connection between the themes of the two articles by this same author? Could it be that a person who loudly promotes the modern religious doctrines of diversity, tolerance and multiculturalism usually has serious issues that they just need to share with the entire world? You decide.

What is Right?

I am not on the right any more than I am on the left. Likewise, I am not a conservative any more than I am a liberal.

I believe that true progress is essentially an upward motion rather than being on the right or on the left. And this upward motion can only result from a genuine Tradition that generally keeps on a straight path rather than deviating to one side or another.

This is represented visually in the following post:
https://uellaunos.wordpress.com/2017/10/11/another-diagram/

A tree that bends over to the right is no better than a tree that bends over to the left. The best tree is the tree that grows straight upwards.

That being said, it is interesting to look into the meaning of the term “right” historically.

The English word right comes from the Old English riht which in turn comes from Proto-Germanic *rehtaz. This Proto-Germanic word developed from a Proto-Indo-European *h3rektos which was derived from the verb root *h3reg– with the passive participle suffix –tos. The verb root *h3reg– meant “to guide, direct, straighten”; the passive participle *h3rektos meant “direct(ed), straight(ened)”.

The Proto-Germanic *rehtaz had the same meaning as its Proto-Indo-European predecessor, like its Latin cognate rēctus which meant “straight; upright, steep, right, correct, proper”. It did not have the sense of “right-hand” or “right-side”. This is obviously the case because the Proto-Germanic language had a different word for “right-hand/side” : this word is reconstructed as *tehswô, this being a derivative of the Proto-Indo-European root *deks-. The reflexes of this Proto-Germanic word in the various Germanic languages include Gothic taihswa and Old High German zeso. Cognates of this Proto-Germanic word outside of Germanic include Latin dexter, Greek dexios, Old Irish dess, Lithuanian dešinė and Sanskrit dákṣina, all of which mean specifically “right-hand/side”.

It seems that the reflexes of the Proto-Germanic *tehswô gradually fell into disuse in the early Middle Ages. Consequently, the sense of “right-hand/side” was increasingly taken on by the reflexes of Proto-Germanic *rehtaz, i.e. Old English riht and English right, as well as German and Dutch rechts. This is paralleled in the Romance languages in which the words that developed from Latin dīrectus – the meaning of which was close to the simple rēctus – came to mean “right-hand/side” as well as “straight, direct, level”: French droit, Spanish derecho, Italian diritto, etc.

I personally believe that these semantic developments are unfortunate because they confuse two separate notions that should have remained verbally distinct – as they obviously were in Ancient Times. But for some odd reason, at least some of the speakers of the Germanic and Romance languages in Early Medieval times didn’t see a problem with this. Well, I do see a problem with this as I indicated at the beginning of this article.

At this point, I should probably elaborate on my own views about the right and the right in the light of the foregoing etymological discussion. But I don’t feel like doing that right now. Maybe some other time…

(Yawn)

Dem Whiteys is Soooo Eeeevul

White people are obviously evil. In fact, White people are undoubtedly the very spawn of Satan. They are all demons – every single one of them.

The fact that White people are all evil is simply undeniable. How else could White people have been the most successful race in all human history? How else can one explain the fact that White people created a civilization that far surpasses all other civilizations and succeeded in extending it throughout the world? How can anyone ever doubt that only the most wicked creatures could create the most wonderful thing ever?

The extremely enormous number of wrongs that must be attributed without any question to White people would be too long to list anywhere. There simply isn’t enough space in the entire universe to print out such an unimaginably lengthy list of crimes and sins that the White race is clearly responsible for.

When you really think about it, every wrong that has ever existed is somehow due to the evil nature of the White race. Finding a hair in your soup at a fancy restaurant – that’s due to the White race. Getting a piece of gum stuck to the bottom of your shoe – that’s due to the White race. Some men having hairy backs – that’s due to the White race. The spelling of the word “sarsaparilla” – that’s due to the White race. Taiwan being replaced by Communist China in the United Nations in 1971 – that’s due to the White race. Denmark being adjacent to Germany – that’s due to the White race. Saudi Arabia not being ruled by a transgender Queen – that‘s due to the White race. Roseanne Barr being Jewish – that’s due to the White race. Justin Trudeau’s fake eyebrows being out of place – that’s due to the White race. Not to mention earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, hurricanes, droughts, famines, epidemics, plagues and constipation.

This being said, it is completely understandable that South Africa is finally dealing with its White demons as it should. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-45026931 It has been clear to anyone who has been following the developments in the “Rainbow Nation” that allowing blacks to slaughter White farmers simply wasn’t good enough. It was high time that the South African government also does its share to treat the White demons of South Africa as they deserve to be treated using legal means.

And yet, the government of South Africa could obviously do a lot more to bring justice to the beautiful black people of South Africa. It could pass a law allowing for all the financial assets of the White demons to be confiscated; a significant portion of the monies could then be given to the State of Israel.

Seriously, what should the White demons of South Africa expect after having thrown 6 million South African blacks into gas chambers and killed them all off with bug spray? Demonic Nazis should always get the most hateful treatment possible; anyone who doubts that is obviously a demonic Nazi.

Of course, the White demons will all deny the fact that there are at least a dozen genocidal extermination camps in South Africa. But snopes.com has recently debunked the outrageous idea that South Africa has no genocidal extermination camps. Moreover, a recent CNN expose has revealed that the former evil Nazi regime of South Africa did indeed have a plan to exterminate all blacks in South Africa – as everyone suspected.

So, yes, let the White demons of South Africa get all the retribution that they deserve. Without a shadow of a doubt, South Africa will be a much better place without them. I can already see Wakanda rising in the “Rainbow Nation”…

Love and Hate

The Aryan Lord stood up on the hill and addressed his followers. This is what he said:

“Every one of you loves. And every one of you hates. This is natural. This is normal. This is right.

“Everyone loves certain things and hates their opposites. This is an inescapable reality.

“You must love that which is worth being loved. And you must hate that which is worth being hated. This is the foundation of genuine righteousness.

“And what is worth being loved? Strength, health, beauty and intelligence, and everything which is conducive to these. These are worth being loved. And their opposites – weakness, sickness, ugliness and stupidity, along with all that encourages these – are worth being hated.

“Someone once taught that you should love your enemies. But if you love your enemies, you will hate your friends and family. Do not be deceived about this. Just as you should love your friends and family, you should also hate your enemies.

“If you love those who are wicked, you will hate those who are righteous. Do not fall for the outrageous notion that one must have compassion for the wicked. The wicked deserve nothing but mercilessness; only the righteous deserve compassion.

“If you love that which is detrimental, you will hate that which is beneficial. Many have been fooled by various twisted lies into loving that which is detrimental, and into hating that which is beneficial. And therefore, the condition of modern society steadily worsens.

“If you love that which is wrong, you will hate that which is right. Loving that which is right and hating that which is wrong should not need to be explained, but the enemies of truth have tirelessly worked to warp minds as much as possible.

“Anyone who tells you that you must only love and never hate is either deluded or lying. In either case, such is a mentally diseased individual that must be eliminated.

“The fact is that such prophets of love are the most hateful of creatures. Because the more one loves, the more one also hates. But such prophets of love are cunning dissemblers.

“Too much love is not good. Likewise, too much hate is not good.

“Too little love is not good, and too little hate is not good.

“Your love and your hate must be in moderate proportion. Proper balance is best in all things.

“Some will say to you that you must love unconditionally. This is also delusion and deception. Nothing in reality is unconditional. Only non-existence is unconditional.

“You must love only on condition that love is truly deserved, and you must likewise hate only on condition that hate is truly deserved.

“You must always do unto others as they truly deserve. Do not be deluded by any ‘Golden Rule’.”

Useless News

You’ve seen news stories lately about a Thai soccer team being trapped in a cave. I’m not going to bother to provide a link to one of these news stories. You’ve certainly seen numerous reports about it already.

This news story is just one of the latest in a continuous stream of news stories from around the world that are absolutely useless to anyone who isn’t immediately concerned.

Do I seem like a cruel, insensitive jerk for saying that? Good.

But the fact of the matter is that there is no good reason for people all over the world to see anything about such patently useless news stories.

Much has been made recently about the prevalence of fake news in the “mainstream” media. Everyone on every side has denounced fake news in recent years. Of course, the (((real perpetrators of fake news))) have even denounced their denouncers as fake news.

But very few people (if any) have denounced the constant barrage of useless news that routinely fills every news broadcast and newspaper issue. This is lamentable because useless news is just as problematic as fake news.

No one on this side of the world should care at all about a Thai soccer team being trapped in a cave. For almost everyone in the world, this news story is simply not important. People should care only about that which immediately concerns them. Their focus should be on the things that really are important to them, not on things that happen on the other side of the world and that don’t affect them in the least.

Of course, useless news is a big part of the agenda of (((those who determine what is newsworthy))). The more (((those people))) can distract the masses from focusing on what truly concerns them, the better it is for (((them))) because distracted people can most easily be fooled, manipulated and cheated.

Indeed, useless news is just one of the many entertaining spectacles that people are encouraged to consume in our modern world. And people will eagerly consume these entertaining spectacles in an attempt to escape from all the real issues, concerns and problems of their real lives.

Which reminds me of The Society of the Spectacle by Guy Debord. I never finished reading that…

About Homosexuality

Homosexuality is a serious behavioral disorder. It should be treated as such just like all other serious behavioral disorders.

This should normally mean subjecting people who are afflicted with homosexuality to serious treatment. It should certainly not mean considering homosexuality to be a normal “lifestyle”.

Believing that homosexuality is somehow normal is nothing short of psychotic. This is clearly on a par with believing that sticking objects in one’s ears is normal. It is also close to believing that having sex with young children is normal. Indeed, there is a clear association between homosexuality and pedophilia.

People who suffer from the homosexual disorder should be removed from normal society and placed in special treatment centers where their disorder can be properly addressed. Normal society certainly does not need to be afflicted by people who suffer from serious disorders.

This in a nutshell is the truth about the serious behavioral disorder which is homosexuality. Acknowledging this truth simply requires a real understanding of the way things normally work in nature i.e. the real facts. Anyone who truly has a sincere desire to maintain and preserve a proper order in society should have this understanding of the real facts.

Everyone who rejects this truth about the homosexual disorder clearly rejects the real facts in favor of illusions, delusions and lies. Such people are either profoundly ignorant of the way things normally work in nature, or they profoundly despise the way things normally work in nature. And such people can’t be expected to maintain and preserve a proper order in society because they are either too deluded or too wicked. The way things are going – slowly but surely – provides ample evidence of this.

This being said, appeals to religious opinions about the homosexual disorder are not useful at all. When one uses such arguments as “Jewsus said” or “God wants”, one is simply regurgitating the kind of fantasyland speculation that no one should ever take seriously. In other words, one is appealing to a realm of illusions, delusions and lies. Saying “Adam and Eve, not Adam and Steve” is certainly clever, but this saying references a Jewish myth that most people don’t even believe in, so its effectiveness is considerably compromised.

It doesn’t even matter if such religious opinions are aligned with the real truth of the matter. The fact is that religious opinion can never be more than religious opinion because it is based on what God or one of his supposed prophets are said to have said.

Religious opinions are never based on real facts; people are simply required to hold them as essentially unverifiable beliefs. They are therefore utterly useless for the purpose of giving clearly intelligent explanations of anything.

I should also mention my own view (explained in previous articles) that the mythical Jewsus Christ of the Christian Gospel was very much the prototype of the Social Justice Warrior and that such a person would most likely not be opposed to homosexuality at all.

Dealing with Difficulties

Dealing with difficulties is a big part of life. Some difficulties must be endured because they can’t be eliminated. But such difficulties can often be mitigated somehow. Then there are difficulties which can and should be eliminated.

If White people were not so thoroughly deluded and deceived by Christian and Leftist thinking, they would take steps to effectively eliminate the difficulties that they can and should eliminate. But unfortunately, teachings that prohibit this have become permanently ingrained in the psyche of most White people.

So instead of doing something to eliminate their difficulties, White people do their best to disregard these difficulties as much as possible, even going so far as to believe that the difficulties are not really difficulties. What would good White people do without their blessed denial?

Otherwise, White people will accommodate their difficulties by compromising themselves, thereby magically “eliminating” the difficulties. This is essentially what their Christian Gospel teaches them to do.

Of course, most White people will tend to believe – as they’ve been told to believe – that their beloved authorities will deal with their difficulties for them. Although it isn’t entirely untrue, this belief is generally laughable.

Those few who find the foregoing approaches unacceptable usually content themselves with merely complaining (aka whining) about their difficulties, and often by writing and posting things about them on the Internet. Although this could theoretically lead to positive changes in the real world, it usually ends up as nothing more than ineffectual venting. But it makes people feel better and that’s the important thing.

So the difficulties remain… and they only get worse and worse.

Black people can be difficult for White people, although few White people would admit it for various reasons. Sometimes this difficulty is intentional, but it isn’t necessarily so. By and large, Black people are a difficulty for White people simply because of their inherent nature, a nature that differs significantly from the nature of White people. Black people don’t naturally think or understand like White people do, and this is obviously a source of serious difficulties, increasingly so now that Black people are being encouraged to become their true selves once again rather than trying to emulate White people.

The same can be said about people of other races, such as American Indians and Middle Easterners, although to a lesser extent because these races differ from White people somewhat less than Black people do. Only the East Asian folks can really relate with White people on a similar level, which is why difficulties between East Asians and Whites are practically negligible.

It would obviously be best for White people if they would rid themselves of the difficulties that result from having non-White people around. But the prevailing ideology of this age prohibits this. So denial and compromise (which sometimes takes the pretty guise of “reconciliation”) are the order of the day.

[It is interesting to note that Title 45 of the Salic Law (Pactus Legis Salicae) of the Kingdom of the Franks provided for a man to legally prevent a stranger from settling in his village.]

Religious pluralism is an obvious source of difficulties. The tensions and conflicts that result from the juxtaposition of different religions can only be precluded under certain conditions, and never completely. It will be observed that material prosperity is very effective at eliminating tensions and conflicts between different groups of people, which is why multiculturalism flourishes in materially prosperous countries. But what if prosperity fails…?

And yet, to make sure that everyone keeps the religious peace, someone must compromise, and in White countries this usually ends up being the Christians, most of whom happen to be White people. Christian churches in Canada have largely aligned themselves with the “anti-Islamophobia” dictates of the Trudeau regime. In fact, they zealously promoted these “anti-Islamophobia” dictates, which is just what their Lord told them to do.

Do I need to mention the difficulties that Muslims have created in every White country that they’ve infiltrated? No, I didn’t think so. But White people must compromise anyway.

Perhaps the most ludicrous excuse for a war is sectarian differences. The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) which essentially pitted Protestants against Catholics greatly devastated much of what is now Germany. Obviously, the formation of mutually exclusive sects (or denominations) within a religion can only create difficulties.

It would undoubtedly be best for White people to rid themselves of all but one homogenous religion, but of course this is considered unacceptable by the prevailing ideology of this age. I should add that if White people did have one homogenous religion, I would prefer that it be a good, strong and genuinely healthy religion, not a religion of guilt, shame and resentment made for misfits, outcasts and losers.

Another source of difficulties is sexual impropriety and sexual deviance. This source of difficulties is surely as old as human society, but human societies generally have found ways to deal with the difficulties caused by sexual impropriety and deviance.

Of course, modern Western societies have rapidly been rejecting any effective ways of dealing with sexual impropriety in favor of the essentially passive “normalization” of sexual impropriety. In modern Western societies, overt sexuality freely disrupts normal sexual attitudes and behaviors everywhere and all the time, the tacit approval of promiscuity routinely ruins any chance of healthy sexual relationships, and the increasing acceptance of adultery is utterly destroying the very concept of a normal marriage. But it’s all good, apparently…

And then there are the many difficulties occasioned by the various forms of sexual deviance, such as homosexuality, pedophilia and bestiality (only the first of these having been “normalized” so far…). It is no secret to anyone that homosexuals are riddled with emotional and psychological issues, and these regularly manifest in serious behavioral problems. Anyone who says that homosexuals are not a problem is either ignorant, in denial or lying.

Inextricably linked with homosexuality is pedophilia (something that the hideous Jewish faggot Milo has proudly boasted about). Anyone who has worked with sexually abused children will tell you that the victims experience huge emotional and psychological difficulties throughout their lives, and this invariably causes difficulties for everyone around them.

[By the way, here’s a video that I recently watched on Renegade Tribune: http://www.renegadetribune.com/uk-police-whistle-blower-child-sex-trafficking-goes-right-to-the-top/
It’s about a police whistleblower in the UK whose attempts to properly investigate the rampant sexual abuse of children got him in trouble with the authorities.]

Apart from the obvious ethical issue with bestiality, the problem with it is that one must necessarily be a very disturbed individual to want to have sex with an animal. How can such an individual not be a source of serious difficulties for society?

As far as dealing with sexual impropriety and deviance goes, the preferred (or rather, prescribed) option in modern Western societies is to be convinced that there is no problem and that any apparent difficulties aren’t really difficulties at all. But it would undoubtedly be best for White people if they would embrace the time-honored ways of effectively dealing with the difficulties that arise from sexual impropriety and deviance.

There is one particular group of people which is not only a difficult bunch, but one that relishes every opportunity to create difficulties for others, especially for White people. Can you guess who I’m talking about?

Jews are difficult not so much by nature, but by sheer intention. The very mindset of the Jew revolves around the idea of causing difficulties for others. For the past two thousand years, White people have been the foremost target of the wicked Jewish desire to cause difficulties.

Although Jews are fully capable of conforming to the nature of the White people around them, the ever-present desire of the Jewish soul is to create as many difficulties as possible for the White people around them even as they maintain their cover of benevolent conformity.

The Jews’ ability to conceal their true nature is impressive but limited. Time and again, people have eventually understood that the Jews in their midst were actively working to create and to promote difficulties for their hosts. This of course led many peoples throughout history to rightfully expel the Jews. And this is exactly what effectively dealing with difficulties looks like.

It’s high time that White people learn to deal with difficulties in truly effective ways once again.

Sa Frenkish Spraaka

One of my interests since childhood has been languages. One of my favorite articles from the 1972 edition of Collier’s Encyclopedia that we had when I was a kid was the one on Latin. The best part of that article was its good description of the phonetic development of Latin from Proto-Indo-European.

The languages that I have been interested in over the years have included the following: Latin, Ancient Greek, Sanskrit, Avestan, Gothic, Old English, Old Saxon, Old High German, Gaulish, Welsh, (Old) Irish, Sumerian, Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian, Hebrew, Arabic, Ojibway, Cree. I have acquired many reference works on all of these languages (many of which I no longer have). Unfortunately, I’ve never studied any of these languages enough to gain any kind of fluency.

Along with my interest in actual historical or current languages, I’ve worked on a few artificial, or constructed, languages (i.e. conlangs). The first one, called Reshish, was created entirely from scratch. The few words I remember from this language are him ‘earth’, har ‘sky’ and tom’lael ‘cut’ (actually, this last word was “influenced” by Greek a-tomos ‘uncut’).

After I discovered the Gaulish language (mostly due to a website that Christopher Gwinn used to have), I decided to try to recreate Gaulish, or at least something like it. This “reconstruction” was called Danuvjâcon (i.e. Danubian): the reasoning for this name was the idea that the Proto-Celtic language had developed somewhere in the area of southern Germany/Austria/Hungary and that Gaulish was a direct continuation of Proto-Celtic. Although I still believe that Proto-Celtic originated somewhere in Central Europe, others prefer to think that it developed in the Atlantic regions (where the Celtoid languages remain to this day).

I posted a wordlist and grammatical material for Danuvjâcon on a website that I once had (I think it was an Angelfire website). That website hasn’t existed for a long time but an Ancient Celtic conlang Yahoo! Group that I once belonged to might still have that information. Interestingly, I recently found a reference to Danuvjâcon on a Neo-Druidic website. In hindsight, I have to admit that Danuvjâcon was much more a product of what I thought Ancient Celtic should be, rather than what it probably was.

I have worked on two other conlangs in the past few years (off and on). One of them is an attempt at deriving a distinct Indo-European language directly from reconstructed Proto-Indo-European. It would essentially constitute its own branch of Indo-European and be a cousin of Sanskrit, Ancient Greek and Latin, if you will.

The big problem with this project is that there are often things and concepts for which no common word can clearly be reconstructed to Proto-Indo-European. Words for ‘father’ (pater), for ‘horse’ (ekwos) and for ‘carry/bear’ (ber-) are easy enough, but there are no common Proto-Indo-European words that can clearly mean ‘leg’ or ‘wall’ or ‘itch’.

Working on a Germanic conlang is much easier because the Germanic language family is much more homogenous than most other language families. For this simple reason, the conlang that I’ve been most successful with has been my West Germanic conlang.

The motivation to create a West Germanic conlang came largely from my discovery of the Old Saxon language through James E. Cathey’s Hêliand: Text and Commentary. After the text selections and the commentary on these is a section with a fairly complete description of Old Saxon grammar as well as a wordlist from the text. Along with Cathey’s Old Saxon resource, I’ve consulted reference works on Old English and Old High German as well as Gothic (Joseph Wright’s works for the last two), and Vladimir Orel’s A Handbook of Germanic Etymology. I’ve also consulted dictionaries of Modern German and Dutch, and I’ve made much use of the etymologies on Wiktionary.

I decided to call my West Germanic conlang “Frankish” but with the following caveat: it would be something like the Old Low Frankish which developed into Dutch rather than the West Central German (i.e. Franconian) dialect that the Carolingians apparently used (no High German consonant shift). Also, my version of “Frankish” is phonetically more conservative than Old Low Frankish probably was (especially in that the diphthongs ai and au are retained rather than becoming long e and long o). Still, I like to call my West Germanic conlang “Frankish” – sa Frenkish spraaka.

Here is a small sample of this “Frankish” language (for nouns and adjectives, singular and plural forms are given; for verbs, the infinitive, the present third person singular, and the past third person singular are given):

[th as in English ‘thick’ and dh like the ‘th’ in English ‘this’; j like ‘y’ in English ‘year’; g always like ‘g’ in English ‘give’; ht like ‘cht’ in German ‘macht’, never as in German ‘nicht’; ai like the ‘y’ in English ‘by’ and au like the ‘ow’ in English ‘how’; oe like the ‘e’ in French ‘le’ and the ‘ö’ in German ‘göttlich’ (but long not short); eu like the ‘eu’ in French ‘jeu’ or like the ‘Ö’ in German ‘Öl’ (rather than the ‘eu’ in German ‘Deutsch’); y like the ‘u’ in French ‘dur’ and like the ‘ü’ in German ‘Rübe’; doubled vowels indicate long vowels – oo is a long o sound like in English ‘boat’, not the sound in English ‘moon’]

apple : appel – apla
and : and
beautiful : shoen – shoena
big : mikel – mikla
bigger, more : maira – mairen
bird : fogel – fogla
black : swart – swarta
bone : bain – baina
bread : braud
break : breken – breketh – brak
bring : bringen – bringeth – braahta
brother : brooder – broodra
cloud : wolken – wolkena
daughter : dohtar – dohtra
day : dag – daga
dog : hund – hunda
drink : drinken – drinketh – drank
ear : aura – auren
earth : ertha
east : aust
eat : eten – eteth – aat
eye : auga – augen
father : fadar – fadra
food : met
foot : foot – foeta
from : fan
go : gaan – gaath – ida
goose : gans – gensa
green : groen – groena
hand : hand – henda
have : haven – haveth – haveda
head : hauvid – hauvda
hear : heuren – heureth – heureda
heart : herta – herten
house : huus – huuza
know : witen – wait – wissa
language : spraaka – spraaken
light : leoht
light (not heavy) : liiht – liihta
make : maken – maketh – makeda
month : maanoth – maandha
moon : maana
mother : moodar – moodra
mouse : muus – myysa
mouth : munth – mundha
new : neo – newa
night : naht – nehta
north : north
one : ain
or : oth
say : sagen – sageth – sagda
see : seen – seeth – sah
sister : swestar – swestra
sky : himil – himla
son : sun – suna
south : sunth
speak : spreken – spreketh – sprak
star : sterra – sterren
sun : sunna
take : nimen – nimeth – nam
the : sa – dha
this/these : dhis – dheza
three : thrii
tongue : tunga – tungen
tree : treo – trewa
two : twai
water : watar
west : west
white : hwiit – hwiita
with : mid
wolf : wulf – wulva
word : word – worda
world : werold – werolda
year : jaar – jaara
young : jung – junga